Genital wart (condyloma) is a skin lesion of viral origin. Lesions can also be seen in the genital and anal areas besides the hands, feet and mouth. Lesions have a cauliflower-like appearance. It can be single or multiple.
Its size can range from a few millimeters to 10-15 cm. They are usually painless masses. The incidence of genital warts in the community is 1-2%. Its incidence is increasing in our country. Genital warts are often seen between 18 and 30 aged.
The source of genital warts is the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) family. There are around 200 different types of HPV. These viruses cause cauliflower-like lesions in various parts of the body, especially in the hands, feet, mouth, genital area and anal region.
The most common types of HPV are types 6, 11, 16 and 18. Most genital warts originate from types 6 and 11. Types 16 and 18 are cancer-associated virus types. These 2 viruses are called high-risk wart viruses. These viruses are responsible for cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer and anal region cancers. Apart from these 4 types, it is seen less frequently in types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58.
Genital warts are usually sexually transmitted. Rarely, it can be transmitted by direct contact. HPV is highly resistant to the external environment. This feature increases the possibility of transmission of the virus. Small cracks and bruises on the skin create a gateway for the wart virus.
Shared use of the bathroom, unhygienic toilets, tattooing can cause HPV transmission. The virus can be transmitted orally into the mouth, and from the anus to the anus and its surroundings.
Genital wart treatment is done with cream, cauterization, freezing and surgical removal in Antalya Turkey. Treatment is planned according to the size, number and extent of the lesion. In the treatment of genital warts, masses should be cleaned as much as possible to minimize recurrences. For this purpose, local treatment is performed by using genital wart creams effective against viruses.
In the treatment of large lesions, the genital wart is reduced by cauterization by burning. The lesion can then be surgically removed.
Genital wart freezing is done with liquid nitrogen. Freezing is applied on the wart for 10-20 seconds. This process is called cryotherapy. Liquid nitrogen is applied both on the wart and its immediate surroundings. Warts freeze and fall off. There may be a mild to moderate burning sensation during the procedure.
A low voltage electrocautery device is used in the treatment of genital wart burning. There may be mild redness, swelling and pain after the burning process. Healing usually occurs within 3-4 weeks, depending on the size of the application area.
This treatment can only remove visible lesions. Even if the masses disappear completely with the treatment of genital warts, this virus continues to live secretly inside the cells. Thus, contamination can continue. However a woman without visible lesions is less likely to transmit the virus.
The causative agent of genital warts is HPV. There are vaccines developed against the most common types of this virus. Today, there are 3 types of vaccines against this virus. All vaccines protect against HPV types 16 and 18. HPV types 16 and 18 are cancer-associated viruses.
Another vaccine provides additionally 90% protection against types 6 and 11. The third vaccine protects against the 4 most common types ( types 6,11, 16, 18) as well as types 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58.
These vaccines only protect against the most common types of viruses. It does not treat a genital wart lesion. Also, vaccines only provide a protection against any virus types that don’t exist in the body.
HPV vaccine is avaliable for men and women who are in between 9 and 46 aged although vaccine efficiency is rather high until 26 years old. The aim is to prevent genital warts, cervical cancer, anal cancers, vulva and vagina cancers associated with this virus.
HPV vaccine is administered as 3 doses within 6 months ( 0.- 2. -6. months). The vaccine is administered intramuscularly. Boys and girls 9-14 aged are applied 2 doses of the vaccine. The interval between doses is 6-12 months. 3 doses vaccine are administered to people who are 15 aged and over and immunosuppressed.
Although the doctors who treat genital warts have completely cleared the lesions in the area, the virus can remain at the cellular level. The virus which remains at the cellular level continues to be contagious. It can be passed on to the partner during sexual intercourse.
HPV can remain silent for a long time and appear as a lesion years later. Therefore, it is recommended protecting the partner with vaccination and condoms if a person is treated.
Discolour and scars on the skin: Genital warts are treated in several ways. After these treatments, discolours and scars may remain on the skin. This is mostly related to the number, size and extent of the lesion. Small lesions can be treated without scarring.
Bleeding: Genital wart lesions may cause bleeding. Bleeding during treatment is a possible risk. Usually, a small amount of bleeding is seen during treatment depending on the size of the lesion.
Infection: Genital warts are sometimes very common and outnumbered. In the treatment of such lesions, a large area of tissue is affected. The larger the treated area, the greater the risk of infection. For this reason, the doctor may apply antibiotic treatment if necessary.
When HPV is transmitted to a person, it does not cause disease immediately. If the person's immune system is strong, the virus may not cause disease in that person. It remains silent in the cell for years. When immunity weakens, lesions emerges.
The appearance and growth rate of the wart is closely related to cellular immunity. Stress, chronic diseases, drugs used, smoking and alcohol can trigger the rise of lesions by affecting the immune system.
Genital wart lesions are seen around the labia minor, labia major, clitoris, vagina, cervix, anal region. While planning the treatment of genital warts, attention should be paid to the extent and size of the warts as well as their location. Warts are raised, brown, lumpy lesions on the skin. Small ones may not be noticed by the person for many years.
Genital warts usually do not itch. However, sometimes there may be symptoms such as itching and burning in varying degrees. Bleeding may occur with skin irritation in large lesions. Rarely, itching and post-bleeding pain may accompany. Irritation, bleeding and pain may be seen in the lesions while cleaning the genital area, scratching or waxing.
Genital wart lesions are closely related to cellular immunity. Genital wart lesions usually do not disappear theirselves. However, it rarely can be eradicated without any treatment depending on good immune system response